Litecoin Block Explorer BlockCypher

06-22 16:42 - 'Bitcoin toolbox - Realtime data, Hash tools, Address lookups, Transaction lookups' (btctoolbox.info) by /u/IMGrPost removed from /r/Bitcoin within 0-9min

Bitcoin toolbox - Realtime data, Hash tools, Address lookups, Transaction lookups
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Author: IMGrPost
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Bitcoin Discussion • Transaction Value Lookup

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Playing With Invertible Bloom Lookup Tables And Bitcoin Transactions

submitted by roasbeef to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

2 unspent outputs

Hey, I have problems with my transactions that I made a long time ago. This got my bitcoins stuck and I am trying to solve that.
I have made 3 different transactions for 1 purchase. The first 2 transactions that I made have 1 unspent output and 1 spent output. But the last transaction has both outputs unspent.
Could this be a reason that my bitcoins are now stuck?
Here are all 3 transactions in order.
5ff1e15e8adaefb5c6e35244f110f579fc20089711615043f74e1681fa48159b
aac6f1f8b54145f1421f399e141487fb5bff4b6581226d0a5bea2af9eacc3599
a1813fcdf90d22d0d1569c8ae0bc2cc917e0c1acfe3f7bd03c005707feaa1c51
Will be very thankful for any help.
submitted by stormer3311 to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

Do Autonomous Trucks dream of C.W. McCall? Part 9- a new home

Tran was a shitty gambler, Chi mused. He played poker like he was sure the next hand would save him. It didn’t. He overpromised and underpaid. Chi planned on kicking his ass to send a message, but Tran ran that line of shit about millions in bitcoin. Against his better judgment, Chi settled Tran’s debts with every other loan-shark in town and fronted another stack of cash.
And all that ended with Tran gambling that away, talking a load of shit and ending up in this dumpster with a trash-bag tied around his neck.
Chi looked at Tran’s phone and wondered if the money was ever real. Considering it might point back at him, he smashed it against the corner of the dumpster a few times before dropping it and walking back to his car. He had some debts to pay.
Falstaff looked at the paper maps in the motel’s office. He followed the Interstate southeast to the desert and what used to be the California- Arizona border. He looked for places he hadn’t heard of being associated with edgy festivals. Even better, motels with chain-sounding names. That’s the place nobody’d look for him.
He packed his car, coaxed Hank back in the carrier and got in his car. Before he got going, he booted his laptop and put the memory card back in. Evidence wasn’t a problem any more, it was getting found.
He copied the contents to his laptop and poked around. Ten minutes later, he had set up a password cracker against the accounts, hoping that Tran would choose something easier to remember and therefore guessable.
He plugged the laptop’s power supply into the car’s cigarette lighter, then put the laptop on a bag on the back seat.
East he went.
Geoff had the night shift on another Internet giant’s campus. This meant he drove a golf cart around once or twice, then parked himself in the camera room and tried not to sleep. Sleeping would cut his hourly wage and get him kicked back to dangerous, dirty jobs like protecting rail yards from motivated thieves.
He used to pick a skill and research it. He learned to get basic vocabulary in Spanish, Mandarin, Fujianese and was trying Tagalog. He could carry a conversation as long as it revolved around simple topics, like where the bathroom, parking lot and reception desk were, or that he wanted to purchase something.
Tonight he picked at that truck thing again. He used a map application to virtually drive between Phoenix and San Diego. After a few hours, he found the spot on the Interstate that looked like the right landscape from the cameras on the pinball machine. He looked at the street view and the camera view over the older man’s shoulder.
Motherfucker. Spot dab in the withdrawn zone.
Who travels to the middle of nowhere to steal from a truck and only take some stuff?
Couldn’t be locals. Locals would strip the truck bare.
He watched the video again. Looks like they took plain grocery shipping boxes.
Inside job? And steal boxes of fresh pasta and imported wine?
He scrolled back and took a few screengrabs. When he worked security at the shiny new headquarters, they had some wild surveillance tools. Real time tracking using AI image enhancement and they taught you how to use it.
Geoff got pretty good at it. He looked over at his phone and opened the scheduling application for his employer. He underbid a few other people and picked up the next shift.
Which got him reinstated access to the HQ’s slick surveillance system. He uploaded the images and asked it to clean it up. He expected this to take a bit of time, so he cleaned up and got ready for his shift.
And his phone dinged. A match.
That he didn’t ask for. Ten seconds later, he saw a corporate ID card. With that bored look of middle aged techie.
Falstaff.
Huh. Dumb name. Looked familiar, but so did every other techie from where he stood. Probably had more money in options than he’d ever earn.
As he drove to work, he wondered why a techie would be robbing trucks in the middle of nowhere instead of getting rich or dying fat here.
He parked, took the shuttle and made it a few minutes early for shift change. He expected a slow night.
Five minutes into the shift, he was sipping good coffee and watching the camera feeds when someone asked for him by name at the desk.
He looked up and saw one of the muscular internal security people smiling at him. Close cropped hair, clear coiled earpiece and the look of someone who worked out at an actual gym instead of lifting five gallon buckets filled with water in a rest stop parking lot. Looked like internal security, maybe even VIP protection.
Guy probably had pretty good benefits. Geoff would love to get a job like that.
Geoff pushed his coffee to the side and stood up to greet the guy asking about him.
Enzokuhle gave Geoff a broad smile and introduced himself as Enzo. The two men were pleasant with one another, but Geoff seemed wary. Enzo didn’t know why he was there either. He was scheduled to do driving and personal protection for a senior exec working in his office, but he got tasked with asking a contract security guard some questions about something very hush-hush.
Whatever. He was good with people. Perhaps he’d learn something.
“Geoff, may we speak outside? This is a sensitive matter, requiring some discretion”
Geoff motioned to his puzzled co-worker by holding up his hand, splaying his fingers and mouthing the word “Five”. The two men walked through the stark but stylish lobby onto a manicured park-like field.
“So, what do you want from me? Not too often we get you guys involved”
“An hour ago, you performed a lookup for a company employee. Have you been in contact with that employee?”
“No. I had an image I wanted processed”
There was an uncomfortable silence as the walked. Geoff realized that Enzo was listening to his ear-piece. Enzo was nodding as he listened.
“I see. So you haven’t seen this person outside the picture you uploaded”
“No, but I have an idea where he might be”
Enzokuhle put his hand up. He wanted to end this transaction as quickly as possible.
“Thank you. Please do not speak of this to anybody else. Your discretion is most important here. Return to your post and we will contact you if we need more from you”. He pointed Geoff back to the lobby without making eye contact.
Galina Ivanova spent a few more minutes talking to Enzo, then thanked him. This was a false lead. AI must be glitchy. No chance that the developer who stole almost a billion dollars was unloading trucks instead of moving that big pile of money somewhere.
Any additional time logged to this goose chase would make her metrics worse. She took off her headset and tried to go back go sleep.
Geoff sat back in his chair. He remembered a video of a scuba diver diving under a moving container ship, looking up at the moving propeller and how close they almost came to a gruesome death.
Why was that guy important enough to throw an alert to internal security?
He looked at his phone and the email with Falstaff’s ID photo. He couldn’t do any lookups to see the last time he was in any of the buildings, since that fed into whatever alerts that brought Internal Security down on his head.
But he remembered something. Employee parking wasn’t owned by Corporate. It was a separate company, which required him to remind annoyed techies when their photo ID wouldn’t trip the gate when some absent-minded developer forgot their garage access card.
Last time this Falstaff guy used the garage was almost two months ago. Such a stereotype. Silver Porsche. Now he knew why the guy looked familiar. He left the day that big brouhaha happened. Rumors flew about the security and custodial staff- some developers stole the next phone design or a treasure trove of celebrity nude photos or something else of value to these people. Anybody too vocal with their opinions got fired and walked out, which Geoff wanted to avoid.
Whatever it was, it was valuable and embarrassing. Made sense to go hide in the desert.
And he had an idea where Falstaff was. Maybe, if he brought him back, there’d be a big enough reward to let him to leave the Valley and go back to Ohio. Pay off debts and raise his family.
It wasn’t like he was making any headway here anyway. He was going on a road trip.
Falstaff was driving slower now. He needed better fuel economy and to take the time to scout out his next stop. Some towns had plain dried up and others still too connected. The last place looked promising. The gas station was a weatherbeaten Sinclair, with a repainted dinosaur. They only took cash. The chain restaurant was burned out and there was a motel “a few miles up”.
Hank was sleeping, but Falstaff’s laptop dinged with the results of his attempt to crack Tran’s big blob of data.
He had passwords for the handful of accounts Tran had dumped on that chip. They weren’t for the financial application he and Tran were working on. Instead, they were for the store’s production environment. He didn’t have a billion dollars in untraceable currency, but he could send almost any consumer good to anybody on the planet and clean up afterwards.
He had some investigating to do, and he preferred a cheap motel to do it from rather than his car.
He rented a room for a few days from a surprised old man and tried to ignore the curious stares from a few permanent residents of the motel.
At least Hank enjoyed exploring the room and this motel would not get the camera friendly festival crowd.
submitted by lawtechie to talesoflawtechie [link] [comments]

Getting started as a bitcoin cash merchant

So I've spent some time looking into various APIs and services, trying to get a basic merchant setup working usable for development, with a working testnet. The quality of the services offered and documentation is lacking, to say the least.
So I've taken a step back and decided I would try to get this working from "first principles", basically setting up a node and using the related APIs. I first tried the BCHD node which was looking promising, until the testnet version of it got into a loop where it kept complaining about some invalid transactions over and over and never seemed to recover.
The I tried "Bitcoin Cash Node", which is an awful name for search engines btw. It could really need a more unique and searchable name. After some struggle and careful reading of startup options and configuration files, I managed to get nodes up an running (testnet and mainnet) and in such a state that they answer to REST and JSONRPC calls.
I have transferred some bitcoin on testnet to a know address, using a public "faucet" that works (also a bit hard to find). I know that I managed to get that part working, as I've successfully looked up the balance of that address using a few of the public blockchain lookup tools.
What I havent' quite figured out is how to look up that address on my locally running node. Most of the API deals with transactions, not addresses. There aren't many APIs that accept addresses. scantxoutset might work, but it uses terms as "scan", which indicates it's not a "low cost" operation (which I would expect).
So I'm wondering, does this really mean that most bitcoin nodes really isn't usable for looking up addresses?? Or to turn it around, can anybody recommend bitcoin cash nodes that offers an easy to use API for looking up payment related things, like addresses?
Final note, I know how wallets etc work. The reason I'm trying to implement similar functionality from scratch is to understand all the details. And because a merchant typically can't just accept the current limited functionality with wallets, which seems focused on a single user's need, not what a merchant would need (gap issue etc).
And fwiw, I've also tested the "bitbox" API (which does not have a working testnet) and "fullstack" API (which has a working testnet, although documentation isn't complete). So I know about other ways of doing similar stuff. I'm just trying to minimize the number of external things I need to depend on while also figuring out how this can be done straight from running nodes.
submitted by kjeldahl to btc [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

[FULL ANALYSIS] Bitcoin exchanges and payment processors in Canada are now regulated as Money Service Businesses

Hello Bitcoiners!
Many of you saw my tweet yesterday about the Bitcoin regulations in Canada. As usual, some journalists decided to write articles about my tweets without asking me for the full context :P Which means there has been a lot of misunderstanding. Particuarly, these regulations mean that we can lower the KYC requirements and no longer require ID documents or bank account connections! We can also increase the daily transaction limit from $3,000 per day to $10,000 per day for unverified accounts. The main difference is that we now have a $1,000 per-transaction limit (instead of per day) and we must report suspicious transactions. It's important to read about our reporting requirements, as it is the main difference since pretty much every exchange was doing KYC anyway.
Hopefully you appreciate the transparency, and I'm available for questions!
Cheers,
Francis
*********************************************
Text below is copied from: https://medium.com/bull-bitcoin/bitcoin-exchanges-and-payment-processors-in-canada-are-now-regulated-as-money-service-businesses-1ca820575511

Bitcoin is money, regulated like money

Notice to Canadian Bitcoin users

If you are the user of a Canadian Bitcoin company, be assured that:
You may notice that the exchange service you are using has change its transactions limits or is now requiring more information from you.
You can stop reading this email now without any consequence! Otherwise, keep regarding if you are interested in my unique insights into this important topic!

Background on regulation

Today marks an important chapter for Bitcoin’s history in Canada: Bitcoin is officially regulated as money (virtual currency) under the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act of Canada (PCMLTFA), under the jurisdiction of the Financial Transaction and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC).
This is the culmination of 5 years of effort by numerous Bitcoin Canadian advocates collaborating with the Ministry of Finance, Fintrac and other Canadian government agencies.
It is important to note that there is no new Bitcoin law in Canada. In June of 2014, the Governor General of Canada (representing Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II) gave royal asset to Bill C-31, voted by parliament under Stephen Harper’s Conservative government, which included amendments to the PCMLTFA to included Bitcoin companies (named “dealers in virtual currency”) as a category of Money Service Businesses.
Thereafter, FINTRAC engaged in the process of defining what exactly is meant by “dealing in virtual currency” and what particular rules would apply to the businesses in this category. Much of our work was centred around excluding things like non-custodial wallets, nodes, mining and other activities that were not related exchange or payments processing.
To give an idea, the other categories that apply to traditional fiat currency businesses are:
When we say that Bitcoin is now regulated, what we mean is that these questions have been settled, officially published, and that they are now legally binding.
Businesses that are deemed to be “dealing in virtual currency” must register with FINTRAC as a money service business, just like they would if they were doing traditional currency exchange or payment processing.
There is no “license” required, which means that you do not need the government’s approval before you can operate a Bitcoin exchange business. However, when you operate a Money Service Business, you must register and comply with the laws… otherwise you risk jail time and large fines.

What activities are regulated as Money Service Business activity?

A virtual currency exchange transaction is defined as: “an exchange, at the request of another person or entity, of virtual currency for funds, funds for virtual currency or one virtual currency for another.” This includes, but is not limited to:

Notice to foreign Bitcoin companies with clients in Canada

Regardless of whether or not your business is based in Canada, you must register with FINTRAC as a Foreign Money Service Business, if:

How this affects BullBitcoin.com and Bylls.com

The regulation of Bitcoin exchange and payment services has always been inevitable. If we want Bitcoin to be considered as money, we must accept that it will be regulated like other monies. Our stance on the regulation issue has always been that Bitcoin exchanges and payment processors should be regulated like fiat currency exchanges and payment processors, no more, no less. This is the outcome we obtained.
To comply with these regulations, we are implementing a few changes to our Know-Your-Customer requirement and transaction limits which may paradoxically make your experience using Bull Bitcoin and Bylls even more private and convenient!

The bad news

The good news

To understand these regulations, we highly recommend reading this summary by our good friends and partners at Outlier Compliance.

Summary of our obligations

Our responsibilities:
The information required to perform a compliant know-your-customer validation:
Record keeping obligations:

Suspicious transaction reporting

Satoshi Portal is required to make suspicious transactions report to FINTRAC after we have detected a fact that amounts to reasonable grounds to suspect that one of your transactions is related to the commission or attempted commission of a money laundering offence or a terrorist activity financing offence.
Failure by Satoshi Portal Inc. to report a suspicious transaction could lead to up to five years imprisonment, a fine of up to $2,000,000, or both, for its executives.
We are not allowed to share with anyone other than FINTRAC, including our clients, the contents of a suspicious transaction report as well as the fact that a suspicious transaction report has been filed.

What is suspicious activity?

Note for bitcoinca: this section applies ONLY to Bull Bitcoin. Most exchanges have much stricter interpretation of what is suspicious. You should operate under the assumption that using Coinjoin or TOR will get you flagged at some other exchanges even though it's okay for Bull Bitcoin. That is simply because we have a more sophisticated understanding of privacy best practices.
Identifying suspicious behavior is heavily dependent on the context of each transaction. We understand and take into account that for many of our customers, privacy and libertarian beliefs are of the utmost importance, and that some users may not know that the behavior they are engaging in is suspicious. When we are concerned or confused about the behaviors of our users, we endeavour to discuss it with them before jumping to conclusions.
In general, here are a few tips:
Here are some examples of behavior that we do not consider suspicious:
Here are some example indicators of behavior that would lead us to investigate whether or not a transaction is suspicious:

What does this mean for Bitcoin?

It was always standard practice for Bitcoin companies to operate under the assumption they would eventually be regulated and adopt policies and procedures as if they were already regulated. The same practices used for legal KYC were already commonplace to mitigate fraud (chargebacks).
In addition, law enforcement and other government agencies in Canada were already issuing subpoenas and information requests to Bitcoin companies to obtain the information of users that were under investigation.
We suspect that cash-based Bitcoin exchanges, whether Bitcoin ATMs, physical Bitcoin exchanges or Peer-to-Peer trading, will be the most affected since they will no longer be able to operate without KYC and the absence of KYC was the primary feature that allowed them to justify charging such high fees and exchange rate premiums.
One thing is certain, as of today, there is no ambiguity whatsoever that Bitcoin is 100% legal and regulated in Canada!
submitted by FrancisPouliot to BitcoinCA [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Astropay.com SCAM! DO NOT USE!

Hello everyone, I literally created an account here just to write this message for everybody to take caution of this site called AstroPay (which I doubt anyone will actually use it except me, the dumbass). So basically I would like to deposit to Pinnacle, and the payment method available in my country is only AstroPay, ecoPayz and Bitcoin. I was pretty curious to check out AstroPay because I was thinking, well if a big book like Pinnacle accepts it, nothing can goes wrong right? And that is where I am wrong!

I registered at AstroPay and trying to make a deposit of 100$ in which I will deposit later to Pinnacle, and the only option available is through bitcoin at that moment, so I purchased some bitcoin at remitano and proceed to transfer the amount required to buy the so-called "AstroPay card", at first I wasn't worried because I know sometimes bitcoin transaction takes awhile so I waited... 1 hour.... 3 hours.... and now 24 hours have passed. I tried to lookup their customer service and surprisingly a "big" company like AstroPay doesn't even have a livechat or call! Only email! Very funny. So I've decided to email them trying to describe my problems and asking why is it taking so long.

Now here's the part where it pissed me off the most, as a payment option company they asked me to send a payment proof of my transaction, like wtf can't you just check it through your side? But is okay I will cooperate so I've sent all the details required, the blockchain link, the proof that I've sent the exact BTC to the address mentioned by AstroPay. After that, every reply I get from the customer service is just a COPY-PASTE message that they require a NEW PAYMENT PROOF! They don't even bother to TRY to fix your problem, they literally just don't give a shit to your transaction, moreover it's a bitcoin transaction so I am pretty sure I am getting scammed here without a doubt... Since there's no way I can chargeback or anything.

After this incident I've done some Google search and I realized there are alot of bad reviews regarding AstroPay already but I am too late to realize it, so please help me to make this post go viral and get enough attention to be a the Google search top result so whenever people search "Astropay scam" at google this will be at the top! Also, if AstroPay is reading this, and you would like to ACTUALLY HELP ME to resolve my case feel free to comment here too and I WILL REMOVE THIS THREAD, but until my 100$ is credited or refunded, this will stay forever.

For those big sportsbook like Pinnacle or bet365, PLEASE STOP ACCEPTING PAYMENT FROM ASTROPAY ALREADY, because it's a SHIT company and there might be people like me to use it for betting and end up getting scammed. And for those who is curious about AstroPay and you are already reading until here, please just change your mind and look for something else, because this AstroPay doesn't even let you WITHDRAW, so even if you're winning 10 grand at a betting site, your money will also forever stuck at AstroPay, there is no way out so it is very useless platform.

I've made the worst decision of my life, now don't make yours. Thank you for reading! Please if possible comment anything down below and make this post go viral until it gets the attention of AstroPay, then maybe I can get 100$ back (even thou the hope is low)
submitted by blinkbling123 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Is Trezor taking advantage of COVID-19 and Stealing BTC from your wallet too?

Okay, so i wanna start off by saying I've had TREZOR for over 6 months now and only since Monday i started taking it seriously by storing my Bitcoins in there.
I purchased the device after seeing an ad claiming it was un-hackable and the most secure wallet on earth blah blah blah,
since purchased i never transferred more than 2000 in and out of my account but recently i decided to withdraw my funds of around 1.3btc from BINANCE into my TREZOR wallet.
it was in there since Monday 6th of April, but when i logged in early hours of this morning my Bitcoins was gone! and my transactions... i never updated my Trezor device in order for my previous wallets to just Disappear like that. The worst part is i recent moved houses and i cant seem to fine the piece of paper where i input my recovery seed.
i just want to know if this has ever happened to anyone? why does this happen and whats the solution? will i get my money back? as im the type of person who stores all his money on bitcoin and doesn't use banks - that was literally everything i had left.
I'm sat here praying that this is just a server error of some sort and it will all be by the afternoon.
TREZOR if your reading this, i hope this wasn't done on purpose, i hope your not taking advantage of COVID-19 and i hope you can return to me whats mine as soon as possible. i got a strong feeling BTC is going to fall fast soon and i don't want to lose any of what i have!
P.S
Below is a link of the blockchain search of my account, you can see that address starting with (3Gyk52T) is mine and you can see it says i have no money in there, which is weird as i transferred a friend $108 to account ending in (1MJfxqp1Z) and at the exact same time it says 1.29863517 BTC was transferred to account starting with (31kZXzJA5) i don't know if that's one of the other accounts on my wallet as i haven't memorized it yet but i definitely didn't send my full balance to another wallet - Furthermore the money is still in the wallet...
I have posted the Blochain LookUp Link in the Comments as my posts keep getting put down by moderator and making me wait 20mins before i post a new post smh
submitted by nsahebltd to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How to Search Tether USDT Transaction with Tokenview Block Explorer

How to Search Tether USDT Transaction with Tokenview Block Explorer
USDT is a cryptocurrency asset issued on the Bitcoin blockchain via the Omni Layer Protocol. How to look up my USDT transaction? Tokenview Block Explorer is one of the best block explorer that can search USDT transaction.

What is Block Explorer

Block Explorer is an online block chain browser which displays the contents of individual USDT blocks and transactions and the transaction histories and balances of addresses. Tokenview block explorer is one of the best blockchain explorer for user to lookup 100+ coin transaction and addresses and so on.

How to Search USDT Transaction with Block Explorer

Block explorers allow you to explore any transaction in any block that has already been mined and is currently attached to the USDT blockchain.
  1. Open Tokenview official website please click here or just input explorer.tokenview.com in Google Chrome and Choose What explorers you like such as USDT explorer to search USDT Blocks.

https://preview.redd.it/3ux09n4m0s651.png?width=2396&format=png&auto=webp&s=3caba4ffb1191c04d45576030a051b08038b33dd
  1. Just copy the USDT Transaction Hash in the USDT Block Explorer Search Box.

https://preview.redd.it/z6q2kyjy0s651.png?width=2512&format=png&auto=webp&s=045ccaf01e3b8e07a0b49b3b3a5847eb63cef837
  1. You will see details of this transaction. And this USDT transaction is a pending transaction.

https://preview.redd.it/l1x8mfcz0s651.png?width=2436&format=png&auto=webp&s=a6e70aa1e37a56b67580b09a607f2d9701787a9d
submitted by Doris333 to u/Doris333 [link] [comments]

How to Search BCH Transaction with Tokenview Block Explorer

How to Search BCH Transaction with Tokenview Block Explorer
Bitcoin Cash brings sound money to the world, fulfilling the original promise of Bitcoin as Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash. If you have transfer the BCH and you may need to look up this transaction details. How to look up my BCH transaction? Tokenview Block Explorer is one of the best block explorer that can search BCH transaction.

What is Block Explorer

A blockchain explorer is a browser for the blockchain, similar to how we have browsers like Mozilla or Google Chrome for internet web pages. Tokenview block explorer is one of the best blockchain explorer for user to lookup 100+ coin transaction and addresses and so on.

How to Search BCH Transaction with Block Explorer

Block explorers allow you to explore recently mined blocks on the blockchain such as BCH. Block explorers allow you to explore any transaction in any block that has already been mined and is currently attached to the BCH blockchain.
  1. Open Tokenview official website please click here or just input explorer.tokenview.com in Google Chrome and Choose What explorers you like such as BCH explorer to search BCH Blocks.

https://preview.redd.it/mtjx5ss1yr651.png?width=2396&format=png&auto=webp&s=9293acebccf0ea88968de99527eb7b0d67d4bdbc
  1. Just copy the BCH Transaction Hash in the BCH Block Explorer Search Box.

https://preview.redd.it/yzhnclzcyr651.png?width=2514&format=png&auto=webp&s=9522044c6d53247bc7b5242689bc5d406cb3a6c3
  1. You will see details of this transaction. And this BCH transaction is a pending transaction.

https://preview.redd.it/62bhfttdyr651.png?width=2436&format=png&auto=webp&s=4c1a7ccc9040e56b99f2d493680acd1899030814
submitted by Doris333 to u/Doris333 [link] [comments]

How to Search Bitcoin Transaction with Tokenview Block Explorer

How to Search Bitcoin Transaction with Tokenview Block Explorer

What is Block Explorer

Block Explorer is an online block chain browser which displays the contents of individual blocks and transactions and the transaction histories and balances of addresses. Tokenview block explorer is one of the best blockchain explorer for user to lookup 100+ coin transaction and addresses and so on.

How to Search Bitcoin Transaction with Block Explorer

Block explorers allow you to explore recently mined blocks on the blockchain such as bitcoin. Block explorers allow you to explore any transaction in any block that has already been mined and is currently attached to the Bitcoin blockchain.
  1. Open Tokenview official website please click here or just input explorer.tokenview.com in Google Chrome and Choose What explorers you like such as BTC explorer to search BTC Blocks.
https://preview.redd.it/trisa9wm6g551.png?width=2464&format=png&auto=webp&s=4d7e81b3c562d6a4e00427d9f4ddcf2fbcb85b52
  1. Just copy the Block Number in the Search Box
https://preview.redd.it/5o9xlcyn6g551.png?width=2446&format=png&auto=webp&s=fa4d16d25a1317cf2cda90b12d385abff7fc751e
  1. You will see details of this transaction.
https://preview.redd.it/ez3mx6qo6g551.png?width=2606&format=png&auto=webp&s=051c12ad8fbcb0f0a1461cfb87f05d67073f00bf
submitted by Doris333 to u/Doris333 [link] [comments]

FloweeJS: lets make a fully free software Bitcoin Cash infrastructure available to Javascript devs!

I've been working hard for several years on a product vision called "Flowee". Which the website describes as "the shortest path to bitcoin". The longer version is Flowee is a family of products and our goal is to move the world towards a Bitcoin Cash economy..
As infrastructure goes, its mostly invisible to the majority of us because only developers (and managers) really care. On this sub most people do seem to realize we really need good infrastructure, which is heartwarming!
Today I introduce a next chapter in the Flowee infrastructure story. The FloweeJS node-js package. The intention is that javascript (the application or server kind, not the browser-side) developers should have access to the great tools that Flowee ships.
The project is basically laying the framework, the foundation of this coupling of Flowee to Javascript. Its only functionality right now is that it connects to Flowee servers and shows the version of the server. But with the right foundation more can be built quite quickly.
What is Flowee good at ?
What Flowee does differently than most is that it has various years ago identified the slow parts and those have one by one been attacked and fixed. To the point where a full node sync takes about 2 hours (280 million transactions). Flowee sees the blockchain as a database. You can find every transaction and get information about it fast and in a simple way. Flowee provides features like an address notification service (get a message when a payment is seen), naturally lookup by various indexes and more. Last we have excellent transaction-builder APIs that is designed by experienced (API) interface design people.
Flowee likes freedom. You are free to start your own server infrastructure. You can start 10 if you have a very high load server. Flowee will scale with your needs.
Flowee is good at infrastructure. And we are now starting to see a useful Javascript library to extend these features to one of the largest programming communities out there.
Readme in the git repo; https://gitlab.com/FloweeTheHub/floweejs#readme
submitted by ThomasZander to btc [link] [comments]

ODIN Contributor, Catamorpheus Releases FORGE GitHub -- MORE INFORMATION WITHIN!

ODIN Contributor, Catamorpheus Releases FORGE GitHub -- MORE INFORMATION WITHIN!

Photo Credit: AskCryptoViking
This implementation of FORGE uses the C++17 language. Forge is a protocol using OP_RETURN transactions in blockchains to encode commands. Doing this, Forge is currently able to support Utility Tokens and Unique Entries.
Utility Tokens
Utility tokens create new digital assets on top of already existing blockchains. Utility tokens consist of a name and a supply
Creation
A new type of utility token can only be generated if its name is not currently in use by any other type of token or entry within FORGE at the time of the new token creation. When a user creates a new utility token, they specify the name and the supply and then receive the supply of newly FORGED tokens to the provided address.
Transfering Utility Tokens
Transferring Utility Tokens to other addresses. The owner of a batch of tokens of the same type can create an ownership transfer operation using FORGE. Such an operation consists of the name of the token they want to send, the number of tokens to be sent and a receiver's address. If at the time of the transaction, the owner has enough tokens, the receiver will receive the pre-determined number of tokens sent during the initial send by the prior owner. The initial creator (the sender) of the ownership transfer will no longer have control over the sent tokens. New ownership will then solely lie with the recipient (the receiver) of the ownership transfer
Burning Utility Tokens
Like Bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency, Utility Tokens can be burned by the owner of the tokens. To do this, a user needs to create deletion operation, which consists of the name of the token he wants to burn and a number of tokens he/she wants to burn. If the user has enough tokens at the time of the deletion operation, the pre-determined number of tokens gets burned, and access to them after the burn is lost, resulting in the total supply of a token being decreased. If a token at any time has a supply of 0, the name of the token can be reused to create new tokens or entries with the same name within FORGE.
Unique Entries
Unique Entries are key-value pairs where the key is owned and controlled by precisely one owner at a time. The value of such a key, which can currently be nothing, an IPv4, an IPv6, or an arbitrary string can be chosen by the owner.
Lifetime and Refreshing
Once a unique entry is generated, it remains valid for exactly one year. To extend its lifetime, the owner can refresh the entry. The entry's validity is then extended precisely one year from the time of refresh.
Ownership Transfering
Like tokens, unique entries can be transferred to another owner. After such an ownership transfer, the new owner is solely responsible for refreshing the entry.
Deletion
An entry, like tokens, can be deleted. After deletion, an entry is now free for others to use. Upon deletion, the entry is invalid, cannot be found in lookup operations, and is open for creation by other FORGE users with any assigned value.
Currently, there are two types of unique entries:
1.)Modifiable Unique Entries also known as MUEntries 2.)Immutable Unique Entries also known as Unique Entries in the code.
Modifiable Unique Entries
Modifiable Unique Entries are useful when the owner is unsure which value they want to be associated with the entry. With modifiable entries, support update operations, allow for reassignment of value to the entry.
Immutable Unique Entries
Modifiable Unique Entries do not support update operations. Once created with a specific value, the entry cannot be modified or changed.
P2E
FORGE "knows" the owner of unique entries. Since individual entries are unique, it is possible to use FORGE as a DNS for payments. Essentially, this means that instead of paying someone with an address, it is possible to pay someone via their entry. Since entries can be created with arbitrary names, users can create an entry with a nickname and receive payments directly to their nickname rather than publishing a complicated and intimidating long-string random alphanumeric address.
DNS
FORGE currently supports IPv4 and IPv6 as associated values for entries. IPv4 and IPv6 means FORGE can operate as a decentralized DNS, allowing for users to lookup IP address through FORGE Entries. FORGE scripts allowing for local running of DNS-Servers is planned and will make use of FORGE as backend.
Keyserver
Not only is IP address lookup currently supported, but it also allows for public key search in a decentralized form, meaning FORGE can function as a decentralized Keyserver.
File Hashes
Unique Entries support the storage of arbitrary byte-values. Because of this storage support, it is possible to store file hashes within the blockchain with an associated entry name. This storage method allows for a more straightforward filehash lookup in future instances using FORGE.
submitted by nondescriptviking to OdinBlockchain [link] [comments]

I've been working on a prototype Jonathan Silverblood's proposed CashIntents. CashIntents will allow for verifiable, trustless, and decentralized payment information. For example: "pokkst#12435 sent you $10 USD on September 4th, 2019"

An example transaction can be found here: https://explorer.bitcoin.com/tbch/tx/dd5e19e8a63279cb87e000abf31211b723c2c2b5a0a8ea475a3beeb6a0a7d646
This system utilizes the OP_RETURN of a transaction, with various portions of the OP_RETURN containing data that will allow the recipient to verify that the sender is who they say they are, and that they did in fact send you that money.
When sending, the sender will include the transaction id of the recipient's Cash Account (the txid that registered the Cash Account), and the transaction id for their own Cash Account (the txid that registered their own Cash Account). The sender will also include the amount sent, and the currency in which they used, as well as a timestamp.
Then the program will take the recipient txid, sender txid, amount, currency, and timestamp and combine the strings together like so:
recipienttxidsendertxidamountcurrencytimestamp
then that string is hashed:
3adb37317e844d995aa6225905bfb0a062b98b10f8579b6f80945088b410bab3
then this hash is signed with the sender Cash Account's address, which will produce a signature like so:
HxBnqQdGRsin9+1FkFAD/8oWb87YAOhexiK4AJaNpEdydk0BZzWfrxR+WuclKNk3owynWUZXTFGFj4+gqpcAHKw=
this is then attached to the OP_RETURN at the very end, and the sender sends the transaction.
On the receiver's end, they will receive the transaction and detect that there is an OP_RETURN. It will parse the OP_RETURN to see if it's a CashIntent OP_RETURN. If it is, it will grab the data from the OP_RETURN like so:
recipient txid, sender txid, amount, currency, timestamp, signature
using the sender txid, we can grab the address that the sender signed with (as it is supposed to be signed with the Cash Account address of the sender) using Cash Account lookup servers and block explorers to grab the necessary data to parse the address:
bitcoincash:q(...)
we can then take each variable like the sender did, and combine them into one string
recipienttxidsendertxidamountcurrencytimestamp
then hash that string to get the same hash that the sender used in his message (we do this locally that way the sender doesn't have to store it on the chain, and so we can verify ourselves):
3adb37317e844d995aa6225905bfb0a062b98b10f8579b6f80945088b410bab3
then we take the signature, hash, and address and verify that the signature is in fact valid. If it verifies, then we can be certain that the sender is in fact who they say they are and that they did send us this money.
This can then be displayed in-app when viewing the transaction as:
pokkst#12435 sent you $10 USD on September 4th, 2019
This is still a prototype, and will need to be finished before rolling it out in Crescent Cash as the first wallet to support CashIntents, but it is working and will hopefully be ready soon. :)
submitted by _pokkst to btc [link] [comments]

Cashaccount integration in Electron-Cash is done!

Help test it with the dev preview here !
Featuring:
To use: Type im_uname#100 into the send box, continue elsewhere (like the amount box) and see the send box verify the account and add 🍋 to it. Send monies.
Alternatively, for more frequent contacts, right click anywhere in the "contacts" tab, "New Cashaccount" follow instructions.
To register: Go to "addresses" tab, right click an address you want to register, "Register New". Make sure you have a few cents in the wallet!
Q: Wait, it binds to just one address?
A: Yes... for now. Type 4 / Reusable Addresses specs is in the works. Only use this for addresses you don't mind being made public.
Q: What are the emojis for? Do I need to type them?
A: No you don't, they are there so you're sure you didn't mistype anything.
Q: This looks awesome!
A: Thank you.
Q: I heard you had this bounty, what happened?
A: It's been paid out to nilacthegrim#2186🔑 . Big thanks to ichundes#102🐪 and jonathan#100 ☯️ as well!
Q: toorik said he's gonna pay $200 as well?
A: Yes, he should direct $200 of BCH to nilacthegrim#2186 🔑. Three cheers for bounty fulfilment!
submitted by imaginary_username to btc [link] [comments]

Big blocks can scale. Anyone see this?

Big blocks can scale. Anyone see this? submitted by ElectronBoner to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

(X-post /r/btc) Cashaccount integration in Electron-Cash is done!

Help test it with the dev preview here !
Featuring:
To use: Type im_uname#100 into the send box, continue elsewhere (like the amount box) and see the send box verify the account and add 🍋 to it. Send monies.
Alternatively, for more frequent contacts, right click anywhere in the "contacts" tab, "New Cashaccount" follow instructions.
To register: Go to "addresses" tab, right click an address you want to register, "Register New". Make sure you have a few cents in the wallet!
Q: Wait, it binds to just one address?
A: Yes... for now. Type 4 / Reusable Addresses specs is in the works. Only use this for addresses you don't mind being made public.
Q: What are the emojis for? Do I need to type them?
A: No you don't, they are there so you're sure you didn't mistype anything.
Q: This looks awesome!
A: Thank you.
Q: I heard you had this bounty, what happened?
A: It's been paid out to nilacthegrim#2186🔑 . Big thanks to ichundes#102🐪 and jonathan#100 ☯️ as well!
Q: toorik said he's gonna pay $200 as well?
A: Yes, he should direct $200 of BCH to nilacthegrim#2186 🔑. Three cheers for bounty fulfilment!
submitted by imaginary_username to Bitcoincash [link] [comments]

Raiblocks scalability question

First off, let me say that I like XRB and I think it has a lot of potential, but I don't understand why it claims unlimited scalability.
I have seen many claims about XRB's infinite scalability and instantaneous transaction speed, for example in the FAQ. I would like to understand how that can be true.
The scalability bullet point in the FAQ only talks about the speed of a node looking up an account. I think that is a bit misleading because it is well known that there are techniques to do fast lookups with a local database in memory. The real scalability question is how to sustain a high transaction rate system-wide.
In the whitepaper, it says: A node may either store the entire ledger or a pruned history containing only the last few block [sic] of each account’s blockchain.
In either case, each node must have a record of all accounts and must receive all messages/transactions worldwide. This implies that if XRB gets widely adopted, each node must handle Visa-levels of network traffic on the order of 10,000 transactions per second and keep updating at least the balances at that rate. I understand that the protocol is efficient in its use of network and space resources but this is not something that can be sustained on consumer grade hardware. The only way to address this is some type of sharding, which would decrease decentralization. I haven't seen any mention of sharding for XRB.
High transaction rates would start to affect the tansaction speed between nodes. If the transaction rates start increasing beyond what some nodes can handle, they will start to get desynchronized and fall further and further behind the rest of the network. What effect would that have on the "instantaneous transaction speed" claim? Even if only two messages need to be exchanged between nodes that control the accounts in order to complete a transaction, these messages must propagate through the network through a gossip protocol until they find their recipients. If the network is clogged with each node trying to handle every global transaction, the messages will take longer to transfer and the transaction speed will get affected by all the traffic.
Maybe I misunderstood the architecture. Can someone tell me where I am wrong or if there is some plan to address this concern?
submitted by fairandsquare to RaiBlocks [link] [comments]

Hacked/compromised computers/network? What steps should I take?

Saw this email on most of my colleagues' spam folder in MS Outlook. The sender and the recipient are the same, my colleagues email addresses. So basically it was sent to/from the same email address:
Subject: Be sure to read this message! Your personal data is threatened!
Hi, dear user of *************.com
We have installed one RAT software into you device For this moment your email account is hacked too. I know your password. I logged in to your account and wrote this letter to you from there.
Changed your password? You're doing great! But my software recognizes every such action. I'm updating passwords! I'm always one step ahead....
So... I have downloaded all confidential information from your system and I got some more evidence. The most interesting moment that I have discovered are videos records where you masturbating.
I posted Spelevo Exploit modification on porn site, and then you installed my malicious code (trojan) on your operation system. When you clicked the button Play on porn video, at that moment my trojan was downloaded to your device. After installation, your front camera shoots video every time you masturbate, in addition, the software is synchronized with the video you choose.
For the moment, the software has harvrested all your contact information from social networks and email addresses. If you need to erase all of your collected data and videos, send me $714 in BTC (crypto currency).
This is my Bitcoin wallet: 13yAsTuS6MyjNUYde4EBabTZJFfZBRTZu1 You have 48 hours after reading this letter.
After your transaction I will erase all your data. Otherwise, I will send a video with your sweepstakes to all your colleagues, friends and relatives!!!
P.S. I ask you not to reply to this email, this is impossible (the sender's address is your own address).
And henceforth be more careful! Please visit only secure sites! Bye,Bye...
Copied and pasted the exact email format. I already checked the header, it came from our company's email/hosting. But I saw this line:
Received: from [14.254.26.179] (port=41608 helo=static.vnpt.vn) Did a whois lookup: https://who.is/whois-ip/ip-address/14.254.26.179
Is this a malware or virus infection? Should I scan each computer on our network? How serious or how threatening is this infection? What steps should I take next?
I already switched to another domain/email hosting last week and changed all email passwords. This email was received from our previous host (webhostingpad.com).
Any tips or help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!
submitted by baloy4 to techsupport [link] [comments]

How To Get Your Bitcoin Transaction Confirmed with CPFP ... Hack bitcoin (private script) 2019 How to find the private key of an imported Bitcoin address ... Bitcoin Integration Group - YouTube How To Find Bitcoin addresses with Balances (Android ...

The most popular and trusted block explorer and crypto transaction search engine. The Bitcoin.com Explorer provides block, transaction, and address data for the Bitcoin Cash (BCH) and Bitcoin (BTC) chains. The data is displayed within an awesome interface and is available in several different languages. Transaction Hash BTC Time Miner Preference; b976eed9d1af ... 0.20591776 BTC 2020-10-24 08:12 GMT high b83a411f3e98 ... 0.8249371 BTC 2020-10-24 08:12 GMT high 5e4d6f818a3a ... 0.29213696 BTC 2020-10-24 08:12 GMT high 9c9aa3e9882a ... 0.04970586 BTC 2020-10-24 08:12 GMT high 5d3373665c2b ... 9.73686722 BTC 2020-10-24 08:12 GMT high 148172a47222 ... 0.0329953 BTC 2020-10-24 08:12 GMT high ... The Bitcoin.com Explorer provides block, transaction, and address data for the Bitcoin Cash (BCH) and Bitcoin (BTC) chains. The data is displayed within an awesome interface and is available in several different languages. Height Age Transactions Total Sent Total Fees Block Size (in bytes) 1935458: 2020-10-24T16:12:37.805Z: 29: 926.165 LTC: 0.001 LTC: 5,360: 1935457: 2020-10-24T16:12:19 ...

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